© 2017 DDRANDCCA by Chochoe Devaporihartakula

Results of the Baseline Study

Status of DRR and CCA integration in ASEAN

Based on the findings of the field study, the Project Team assessed the status of DRR and CCA implementation and their integration in institutional and policy framework in each ASEAN Member State as listed below as well as summarised in the following table: 

 

  • DRR and CCA concepts are well integrated or incorporated in national socio-economic development plans but legal framework for DRR and CCA is generally not integrated;

  • Inter-ministerial and national-subnational disaster risk management system has been well established in general but the coordination with the CCA management system is still at a development stage in many Member States;

  • Regular budgetary arrangements for DRR and CCA activities of line ministries are not tracked systematically except in few Member States;

  • Disaster and climate risk assessment capacity, including hydro-meteorological data monitoring and analysis, downscaling from Global Climate Models (GCMs) and hazard and risk mapping,  varies from country to country;

  • DRR planning and implementation incorporating climate risk as well as development of planning guidelines is still rare in the region; and

  • Community-based disaster risk management pilot projects are implemented in most Member States, but integrated DRR and CCA training at national and local levels is still rare in the region.

  • DRR planning and implementation without considering CC impacts are insufficient in general except some areas in Malaysia. DRR planning and implementation with CC impacts are lacking or insufficient in general except some good practices or potential good ones seen in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore and Viet Nam. Guiding tools for planning and implementation including the related risk assessment have not been prepared in most Member States. 

Current status of DRR and CCA implementation and their integration in ASEAN

Category

Current Status

Institutional and policy development

Policies, laws and regulations

  • DRR and CCA concepts are well integrated in national socio-economic development plans in the Philippines and Lao PDR; whereas they are incorporated individually in other Member States. 

  • Legal framework for DRR and CCA composed of several legal documents is not well integrated in general.

Management system

  • Inter-ministerial and national-subnational disaster risk management systems have been well established in general. Inter-ministerial CCA management system has been well established but national-subnational linkage is not so strong compared to the disaster risk management system in most Member States.

  • Coordination between the disaster risk management and CCA management systems need to be improved in most Member States. Indonesia and Malaysia have an advantage in this aspect for their institutional arrangement.

Financial arrangement

  • Regular budgetary arrangements for DRR and CCA of line ministries of each Member State need to be strengthened.

  • Fund allocation for subnational DRR and CCA management activities in Indonesia and the Philippines is advanced compared to others.

  • Payment for forest environmental services which levies hydropower generators, water suppliers and tourism service providers has only been implemented in Viet Nam.

Risk assessment

  • Disaster database has been set up in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam.

  • All Member States have hydro-meteorological data management system and the conditions in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam are better than others. Coverage of the observation stations in upstream river basins and rural areas is not sufficient in some of them. Hydro-meteorological data sharing of international rivers is insufficient except in the Lower Mekong River.

  • Downscaling from Global Climate Models (GCMs) is conducted in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Viet Nam. There are no standard values of CC impacts set in any Member States yet.

  • Flood hazard maps or risk maps without incorporating climate risk are prepared in Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam, but their resolution is insufficient for DRR and preparedness planning in general. Malaysia and Viet Nam have prepared flood hazard maps with climate change impacts in selected areas. Preparation of hazard maps or risk maps of landslide are generally insufficient except some areas in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand and the situation for storm surge and drought hazard maps or risk maps are similar.

Planning and implementation

  • DRR planning and implementation without considering CC impacts are insufficient in general except some areas in Malaysia. DRR planning and implementation with CC impacts are lacking or insufficient in general except some good practices or potential good ones seen in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore and Viet Nam. Guiding tools for planning and implementation including the related risk assessment have not been prepared in most Member States. 

Capacity building

  • Community-based disaster risk management are conducted in most Member States, but integrated DRR and CCA training is rarely conducted except in Indonesia.

Good practices of DRR and CCA integration in ASEAN

The Project Team also identified a number of good practices on DRR and CCA integration, or the ones which have a potential to be integrated, that are transferable, applicable and a good reference for other Member States. These practices include the followings as well as the ones listed in the following table (see also Good Practices under the Resources Library):

 

  • Development of a network of national-subnational DRR management and funding system in the Philippines;

  • Development of a river basin management system with a stakeholders coordination mechanism in Indonesia;

  • Creation of a forest protection fund based on payment for environmental services in Viet Nam;

  • Synchronisation of hydro-meteorological data projections and downscaling of GCMs to determine standard values of climate change in Indonesia;

  • Preparation of detailed hazard and risk maps in selected areas in Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam;

  • Development of guidelines and standard for river and coastal structural designs in the Philippines;

  • Forest and mangrove rehabilitation and the implementation of water saving measures in various Member States.

Assessment Category

       General Evaluation and Selected Good Practices

Selected good practices of DRR and CCA integration in ASEAN

Review Point

1. Institutional and policy development

    1.1 Laws, regulations and policies

1) National development plan 

DRR and CCA concepts are incorporated in the national socio-economic development plan

DRR and CCA concepts are incorporated in the national development plans individually.

  • DRR and CCA concepts are integrated in the national development plans in Lao PDR and the Philippines.

2) DRR laws, regulations and policies

DRR is mainstreamed in each ministry’s policies

DRR is promoted through the activities of national disaster risk management committee, but the degree of mainstreaming is not clear.

DRR laws, regulations and policies are formulated and enforced (with consideration of CCA)

Degree of DRR policy enforcement is not clear.

  • DRR and CCA are being converged by the coordination of the National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS), Ministry of Agrarian and Spatial Planning and Ministry of Home Affairs in Indonesia particularly for formulation of 5-year local development plan and associated spatial plan and annual budget.

3) CCA laws, regulations and policies

CCA is mainstreamed in each ministry’s policies

CCA is promoted through the activities of the UNFCCC.

  • A study report on disaster risk management to advance CCA was compiled by the Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change (IMHEN), Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) in cooperation with the UNDP in Viet Nam.

  • Each ministry in Cambodia drafts CC action plan.

DRR laws, regulations and policies are formulated and enforced (with consideration of CCA)

All Member States have CCA policies and or plans in place but the degree of their implementation is not clear.

4) Relevant sectoral laws, regulations and policies

DRR and CCA concepts are incorporated in relevant sectoral laws, regulations and policies including land-use and urban plans, building codes;

DRR and CCA concepts are being incorporated in land-use and urban plans in few Member States (e.g. Philippines, Indonesia), but the degree of the implementation is not clear.

water resources and river basin management;

Importance of the water resources management is recognised in sectoral laws and regulations in each Member State.

  • River Basin Management Offices (Balai) and National Water Resources Management Agencies (Perum Jasa Tirta) are set up in Indonesia and Malaysia (e.g. MADA). Singapore has an integrated water resources management system. The Law on Water Resources (2012) in Viet Nam mandates integrated operation of hydroelectric reservoirs to reduce flood risks.